Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430), Saint Augustine, was originally from the Roman province of North Africa called Numidia, now part of Algeria. About forty years before his birth, in 313, Constantine legalized Christianity; about forty years after his death, in 476, the Western Roman Empire came to an end.
Bertrand Russell, in his “History of Western Philosophy”, introduces the second part of the book by saying that the Middle Ages is the history of “growth and decay” of the Catholic synthesis. He knows so well what is being synthesized that he forgets to say it. But now, as I reread portions of the book, I know that the synthesis sought was between faith and reason. My “Medieval Philosophy” teacher thinks that it has been successful. I, for one, can not imagine where he got that idea from.
History itself appeared with the ancient Greeks Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon, but it was little more than a collection of disconnected stories focused on large individuals. History was not a journey toward an end or had any underlying plan. The universe had always existed, after all.